Within the emblematic Equatorial Monument, various themes can be appreciated, starting with a chronology, which highlights the main events since the arrival of the French Geodesic Mission conformed by a suitable team of academics Godin, Bouguer and La Condamine. Measure the arc of the meridian.
After several studies, it was concluded that Quito was the most suitable territory, but the King of Spain Philip V had to be authorized, since these lands were part of their colonies. Once the permit was granted, he appointed two young sailors Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa to represent Spain within the Mission.
The first French Mission arrived in 1736 to measure the meridian arc, later 200 years later and in honor to the arrival of the Geodesic Mission the first monument in the year 1936 is constructed by Luis Tufiño, with a height of 10 meters, was transferred A The population of Calacali, 9 kilometers west of the half city of the world.
In 1979, the current monument was built, with a height of 30 m without the balloon. This monument was built under the auspices of the Honorable Provincial Board of Pichincha and the globe (5 tons and 4.5 m in diameter) was donated by the National Polytechnic School.
Subsequently, Dr. Patricio Romero Barberis and the Provincial Council decided to undertake the construction of the City of the Middle of the World, which was designed as a representation of a typical Spanish colonial style village with all its characteristic elements. This project began in 1981 and materialized in 1992, under the presidency of Osvaldo Hurtado.
Continuing with the route, descending can see 6 levels, in which Ecuador shows itself as a multiethnic * and multicultural country *, with an ethnographic exposition of the indigenous groups of the Coast, the Sierra and the Amazonian Region, the same one that has Been treasured since the construction of the monument.
In this space, you will be able to get acquainted with the clothes, musical instruments and more traditional aspects of the life of the Afro-Ecuadorian groups of Esmeraldas, Chachi and Cholo pescador that represent the Region of the Coast.
Subsequently, a photographic sample appears, its dress and instruments of the groups of Cotopaxi, Tungurahua (Salasacas and Chibuleos), Saraguros, Otavaleños and Zuletas; You can also appreciate the musical instruments used at parties.
Concluding with the ethnographic floors, we will know a little more of the indigenous groups of the East such as: Cofanes, Quichuas, Sionas-Secoyas and Huaoranis. This exhibition offers large format photographs of these ethnic groups in the Ecuadorian jungle, as well as their clothing, handicrafts, hunting and fishing instruments.
Interactive experiments are part of the renewed image of the Monument of Ecuador, where visitors can check and learn more about why we are in the Middle of the World.
During the visit to these interactive floors we find the following:
It can be observed in a very didactic way like the rays of the sun in the hemispheres in each solstice and equinox, producing thus the seasons of the year.
The four seasons of the year are spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring and summer are the half year in which the days last longer than the nights, while the nights are longer in autumn and winter.
Depending on latitude * and altitude, year-round climate changes may be minimal, as in low or maximum tropical areas, such as mid-latitude areas. In these zones the stations can be distinguished. In the Amazonian areas, there are only humid and dry periods, as is the case in Ecuador.
Solstices and equinoxes
Through this experiment, the tourist can observe the movement of the Earth around the Sun, which indicates the solstices and the equinoxes.
Summer and winter solstices occur twice a year: June 20 or 21 and December 21 or 22, are times of the year when the sun reaches its highest or lowest height, is the point of the Orbit of the Earth that coincides with one of the ends of the major axis. The duration of the day or night is the maximum of the whole year. At the summer solstice, the day has the shortest night of the year and at the winter solstice it is the longest night of the year.
The gyroscope is a device that allows to represent the movements of precession and nutation of the earth.
The Earth has an irregular shape, flattened at the poles and deformed by the gravitational pull of the sun, moon and planets. These characteristics cause a kind of slow rolling on the Earth during its translation movement, this is known as precession of the equinoxes, which is carried out in the opposite direction of rotation, is clockwise.
Under the influence of these attractions, the axis is describing a double cone of 47 degrees’ aperture, whose vertex is in the center of the Earth.
The movement that overlaps with the precession is the nutation, a small inclination of the axis of the Earth. The attraction of the moon over the equatorial protuberance causes this phenomenon, because the Earth is not spherical. In a complete precession round (approximately 26 thousand years), the Earth performs more than 1,300 cycles of naturalization.
Through the balance the visitor will be able to know its weight in the Half of the World and to compare it with the Sun, the Moon and the North Pole because in that place the rotation speed of the planet is of zero.
The decrease of the weight in the monument of the Half of the World is due to two factors. The first is the height of the place, increasing the distance of a mass in relation to the center of the Earth. The second factor corresponds to the centrifugal force.
In Ecuador the planet spins at a speed of 1650 km / h, much higher than in other latitudes, which causes the weight to decrease by 0.5%.
This experiment used the levitation by magnetic induction, the process generates electric fields through magnetic fields. To generate an electric field in a conductive material, charge carriers will be subject to a force and it will induce an electric current in the conductor.
This experiment shows how the magnet slowly goes up and down, if it were floating. This is thanks to Eddy currents, which occurs when a driver crosses avariable magnetic field, or vice versa.
The relative motion generates a movement of electrons or induced currents within the driver.
These circular currents create electromagnets with magnetic fields which oppose the magnetic field-effect applied.
This experiment shows the rotation system that launches two water jets confronted each other. Once the rotation movement begins, you can see how the water jets suffer a deviation of direction.
The Coriolis Effect acts on the masses of air or water and its movement is modified by the rotation of the Earth.
The objects that are farther from the Ecuador have a slower movement since the Earth rotates faster in the equatorial line, so that the deviation is greater at the poles and null in the Ecuador.
The two main causes for the Coriolis force to exist are the eastward movement and the latitudinal velocity, which causes the Earth's parts to move at different speeds.
When the Earth rotates on itself, the force acts in a north-south direction, so in the northern hemisphere the winds drift to the right and in the southern hemisphere to the left.
Through this experiment, it is possible to demonstrate how the weight decreases as the centrifugal force increases, so that it will be verified how the weight in the north pole decreases to a lesser extent than the same weight in the equator.
In Ecuador, whatever the mass, one experiences less weight than in another part of the world, as in the poles, for example. The centrifugal force generated by the Earth in spinning pushes us towards outer space, but by gravity, this does not happen.
The land attraction has at the poles a value of 9.83 meters per second, while at the equator it is 9.78 meters per second, which means that the weight decreases 0.5%.
This exhibition has two electromagnetic levitation systems that work with magnets and electromagnets to suspend objects in the air. The first of these contains a globe floating in the air. The second allows to interact with the tourist, testing your ability to float a wooden monument from the Middle of the World.
Magnetic levitation is the phenomenon by which a material can levitate due to the repulsion existing between the equal poles of two magnets, electromagnets.
The most common applications of magnetic levitation are Maglev trains, a transport system that includes the suspension, guidance and propulsion of vehicles, mainly trains, using a large number of magnets for the support and propulsion based on magnetic levitation. In addition, the magnetic bearing allows holding moving parts without having physical contact with them.
Earth behaves like a giant magnet,so the phenomenon of terrestrial
magnetism is given. The planet creates its own magnetic field due to the electrical currents that are created by the number of liquid nickel-iron. The Earth, is compared with a magnet, it has two poles: North and South.These magnetic poles, are not aligned with the geographical poles. The geographic North Pole is defined by 90° latitude and is the axis by the Earth makes the rotatory motion.
The magnetic north pole is where the Earth's magnetic field points vertically downwards. While the magnetic South Pole is located close to the coast of Adélie, Antarctica, about 2600 kilometers of the geographic South Pole.
The table of magnetic fields consist of three experiments:
➤ Lines of magnetic field:
Through a demonstrative experiment people can observe lines of magnetic field rotating the lever. Its operation is based on small magnetized cylinders which are ranked depending on the position of the magnet.
Through the motion of a magnet will observe the movement of the compasses’ needles in different directions,this is because the needles of the compasses are magnetic and are pointing to the magnetic South Pole of the Earth. When approaching a magnet, the needles will attract its magnetic field.
Through this experiment you can display the effect of a magnetic field in a Ferro fluid through an electromagnet which is located inside.
It is used in medicine as experimental treatment called magnetic hyperthermia to fight cancer. The advantage of is project is the nanoparticles to convert electromagnetic energy into thermal energy or heat.
The levitation "T" is an equipment related to eddy currents * and created to compare the decrease in the rate of fall between 2 equal magnets, unlike one of them is between two aluminum plates. When the magnet falls, it induces a current in both plates, which generate a magnetic field that opposes the fall of said magnet.
Foucault currents or parasitic currents occur when a conductor crosses a variable magnetic field or vice versa.
Relative motion causes a circulation of electrons * or induced current inside the conductor, which creates electromagnets * with magnetic fields that oppose the effect of the applied magnetic field. The stronger the applied magnetic field, or the greater the conductivity of the conductor, or the greater the Foucault currents and the opposing fields generated.
Foucault currents create energy losses through the Joule * effect. These transform useful forms of energy, such as kinetics, into unwanted heat, so it is generally a useless effect. They also reduce the efficiency of many devices that use variable magnetic fields, such as iron core transformers and electric motors.
They are used, in electrical applications, to increase the effect in converters of movement to electricity like in the electric generators and the dynamic microphones. Also, to induce a magnetic field in aluminum cans, allowing them to be easily separable from other recyclables.
This experiment drives an aluminum ring without a mechanical impulse; this is possible using an electromagnetic field to induce a current within it, pushing up
ring. The experiment was performed by Elihu Thomson, for first time in New York in 1887.
When feeding with a DC voltage source, the ring jump, both closed and open circuit. This experiment shows how the currents impulse the ring induced by variation of magnetic flow * produced by the coil *, both transient and in permanent sine regime.
Through this experiment can observe a tesla coil modified (plasma ball) that generates an electromagnetic field around it, which turn on a fluorescent bulb when it is close to.
Wireless electricity is the ability to transmit electrical energy without any cable. A simple way to transmit power from one place to another is by inductive coupling standard, used by phones, charging mats and electric toothbrushes.
Connecting equipment to an electrical current is generated in the transmission coil a magnetic field that passes through another coil located on the computer that you want to transmit power wirelessly.
Nikola Tesla developed, invented and patented the coil circuit in 1891. Variations in the flux of the magnetic field allow transporting electricity without any element, the Wardenclyffe tower was his greatest inventions that people didn`t know.
Known as the Tesla Tower, believed that it was able to find a way to transmit energy through the air. This tower was completed, but was demolished in 1917 due to lack of budget. Tesla demonstrated that power transmission was possible through of electrostatic induction in 1891.
Ground Floor and Virtual Hostess
All the ground floor of the Equatorial Monument shows the tourist information of Ecuador with cutting edge and interactive technology that makes the visitor have a unique experience.
The virtual host of the Equatorial Monument welcomes our visitors wearing a suit from Otavalo, which gives a cordial welcome in English and Spanish.
It is a holographic stage in which the image of a Shaman is projected on a real stage next to real vessels and furniture. At the push of a button, the shaman appears sitting next to a bonfire, using a smoke effect to give the visitor information from the Middle of the World.
The sensory room of climatic floors seeks to transport children and adults to different parts of Ecuador through the fusion of visual, auditory and sensorial elements. For a few minutes the tourist can enjoy an experience that transports them to the Region of the Coast, Sierra, Amazon and Insular.
This space stimulates the perception of sensations and encourages learning. The tour begins in the Galapagos Islands, exploring its biodiversity, as well as the beauty of its landscapes. Continues with the Coast Region where you can appreciate the landscapes, the effects that the currents of the child and Humbolt have on the climate.
Afterwards you can feel the cold of the Sierra and you can see the snowy mountains and the variety of climates. The trip concludes in the East, known for being a jungle area and its great diversity of flora and fauna.
Through the touch screens located on the ground floor of the Equatorial Monument, the tourist can watch videos with audio that provide the important information of the different regions of Ecuador, dividing them in gastronomy, culture and tourism.
In another touchscreen just by pressing the different options the visitor knows the different tourist routes of Ecuador, with an illustrative video of the places where each one they cross the tourist routes.
The room of photomontage, is designed under the technique of "Croma", audiovisual technique used in film, television and photography, to extract a color of the image and replace the area of this color by an image, with the computer help.
This room was created with the objective that the tourist can take an irreplaceable memory of the Middle of the World with a photomontage with landscapes of Ecuador such as: Galapagos Islands, the Basilica Church of Quito and a community shuar, and many alternatives to choose.